Transistor circuit

TIP120-Transistor

Here’s how to use a TIP120 transistor to control higher voltage or higher current loads. This circuit will also work for an IRF520 MOSFET. The load could be a motor, or an ultrabright LED, or 50 LEDs you want to switch on with one pin, or anything higher voltage DC.

Maximum 60V, 5A (8A if pulsed). Datasheet: http://www.fairchildsemi.com/ds/TI/TIP120.pdf.

tip120

Note that there are many components that look like this. Its package, or form, is called TO-220. Many components are in TO-220 packages. Make sure you read the part number and it says TIP120. There are also other variants of transistors that also work the same basic way.

A 1k-2k resistor is used between an Arduino output pin and the base pin to protect the transistor, but can be calculated more exactly if efficiency or precision is needed (read “connecting a transistor to the output of an IC” half-way down this page). In practice, with a TIP120 you can omit the resistor with an Arduino since it can only supply 40mA per pin – but it’s better to develop good practice.

A protection diode is only necessary for inductive loads like motors or relay coils. It protects the Arduino from “flyback voltage.” Standard 1N4001 diodes are fine for most applications.

Diode polarity: power can flow in the direction of the arrow, but is blocked in the other direction

ITP Transistor Tutorial: itp.nyu.edu/physcomp/Tutorials/HighCurrentLoads

Transistors and Arduinos workshop video:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cEz1i5xzGEE

TIP120_schematic

tip120-arduino

tip120-motor

transistormotor_bb
Using a pushbutton to turn on and off motor. Here the 9V battery is used only for the motor.

 

sketch1-1024x919
Using V-in to power the motor – whatever is powering the Arduino will come out of V-in (e.g. USB = 5V, 9V battery = 9V).

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